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MATRIC NO:     2004E/1002/BAM


LEVEL:             ND II E


CODE:              214 E


Motivation this can be defined as the incentive to work towards a goal, a causative sequence involving a need that provides the drive to achieve an objective.

 McGregor Theory x&y, this particular theory assume that the average person.  Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it, has no ambition, wants no responsibility and would rather follow than lead. It also emphasized on self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals, and also this theory believe that average person resists change, is gullible and particularly intelligent. And this theory strongly believes that people work for money and security. This theory x also applied hard approach and soft approach, he said that hard approach relies on coercion, implicit threats, close supervision, and tight controls, essentially on environment of command and central. The soft approach is to be permissive and seek peace and harmony with the hope that in return employees will co-operate when asked to do so.

Theory y

This theory y makes the following general assumptions. He said that work can be as natural as play and rest, people will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them and people will be committed to their objectives if rewards are in place that address higher need such as self-fulfilment under these conditions, people will seek responsibility and most people can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population. Under these assumptions, there is opportunity to align person goals with organizational goals by using the employees own quest for fulfilment as the motivator.

Abrabam Maslow’s hierarchy  of needs alert how these needs motivate us. maslow’s hierarchy of needs states that we  must  be satisfy each needs in turn, starting with the first, which deal with the most essential needs for survival itself. Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well being are satisfy  with the higher order needs of influence and personal development, Maslow’s hierarchy  of needs was developed.

Between 1943-1954, and first widely published in motivation and personality in 1954. at this time the hierarchy of needs comprised five needs.  1. he  look at the biological and physiological needs like air, food, drink, shelter warmth, sex, sheep.

2. he look  at safety needs like protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability.

3. he look at belonging and love needs like work group, family, affection, relationships

4. he look at esteem needs like self-esteem, achievement, mastery independence, statues, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility.

5. cognitive needs like knowledge meaning Abraham Maslonw’s of hierarchy still added three more hierarchy of needs

6. Aesthetic needs like appreciation, search for beauty, balance, form.

7. self-actualisation needs like realising personal potential, self-fulfilment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences

8. transcendence needs- helping others to achieve self-actualisation.


Vroom theory: this theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (room. 1964) reward may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated, conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Vroom make the point that task goals (productivity, quality standards or similar goals attached to jobs) one often means to an end rather than the end in itself. There is a second levels of outcomes which reflect the real goal of individuals and these many be attained, in varying degrees, through task behaviour. An individual is motivates to behave in a certain manner because he or she has a strong desire for a certain task outcome and a reasonable expectation of achieving that outcome, and because him or her also expects that the achievement of the task outcome will result in reward in terms of pay, promotion, job security, or satisfaction of individuals needs like esteem safety, physiological and so on.


Alderfer’s Theory, he strongly believe that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense (e.g) the power you get the more you want power like an addiction. Alderfer’s move on by classifies needs into three categories also ordered hierarchically.

1.    Growth need like development of competence and realization of potentials

2.    Relatedness needs like satisfactory relations with others.

3.    Existence needs like physical well -being.

When looking at this theory, this is similar to Maslow theory can be seen as just collapsing into three tiers. But  maybe a  bit more rational.  For example, in Alderfer’s Model, sex does not need to be in the bottom category as it is in Mashow’s model, since it is not crucial to ( the individuals) existence. (Remember, this is  about individual motivation, not species survival). So by moving sex, this theory does not predict that people   have to have sex before they can think about going to school.

                   Alderfer’s theory of needs diagram

Relatedness Needs

Existence  Needs

Growth Needs









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